Jenis dan Spesifikasi Kapal Perang Dunia

Jenis dan Spesifikasi Kapal Perang Dunia

USN Ship Designations
Nomenclature History

Kapal perang AL Amerika menggunakan sistem tanda dan nomor pertama kali tahun 1895. Dibawah sistem inilah kapal AL Amerika menggunakan nama “Battleship X”,”Cruiser X”,”Destroyer X”,Torpedo Boat X”.
X disini adalah serial nomor lambung yang disetujui oleh kongres Amerika. penomoran nomor lambung biasanya menggunakan “B-1”, “C-1”, “D-1”, “TB-1”. Sistem ini mulai berubah Ditahun 1920,ketika banyak kapal perang baru yang diproduksi ketika Perang Dunia I akhirnya memerlukan pengkatagorian baru untuk kapal perang,terutama untuk kapal pendukung. Pada tahun 1 juli 1920,sebagai sekretaris AL Amerika Robert E. Coontz mensetujui sistem simbol alpha numeric untuk mengidentifikasi semua kapal dengan dua huruf dan sebuah nomor lambung produksi. Dengan Huruf pertama sebagai “tipe kapal” huruf kedua sebagai “subtipe”. sebagai contoh “Destroyer Tender No.2” pada 1915,kemudian menggunakan nomor “AD-2” yang berarti “D” untuk destroyer ,”A” untuk auxilary(cadangan),”2″ berarti kapal kedua yang diproduksi.kapal yang tidak punya subklasifikasi biasa hanya menggunakan pengulangan huruf pertama,seperti Battleships menjadi (BB-X) dan Destroyer menjadi (DD-X),kapal baru yang merubah Subklasifikasi akan diberi nomor lambung baru dengan nomor serial desiknasi .

Desiknasi “USS” berarti “United States Ship” diadopsi pertama kali tahun 1907. Sebelum tahun itu,tidak ada desiknasi formal yang digunakan pada dokumen. Kapal yang masih dalam tahap konstruksi menggunakan nama “PCU” artinya “Pre Commissioning Ship”

Harus diperhatikan bahwa AL Amerika tidak seperti AL Eropa. Kapal pertama dalam kelasnya hanya boleh disetujui oleh kongres amerika untuk menamai desiknasi class leader (class name ship) walaupun kadang class leader tidak harus dari kapal pertama, atau kapal sesudahnya yang kemudian diluncurkan.sebagai contoh battleship USS Colorado BB-45 (Diluncurkan 30 agustus 1923) adalah class leader dari kapal battleship dibawah AL amerika,bukan USS Maryland BB-46 (diluncurkan sebelumnya pada 21 july 1921).jadi walaupun USS Maryland diluncurkan pertama kali,bukan berarti USS Maryland bisa menjadi class leader dalam kelasnya.

Dibawah ini adalah daftar desiknasi yang sudah tidak digunakan AL amerika saat ini. sedangkan yang berwarna biru adalah desiknasi yang digunakan sekarang.

Aircraft Carrier
ACV Aircraft Carrier, Auxiliary
AVG Escort Carrier, Auxiliary
AVT Aircraft Carrier, Training Ship
CV Aircraft Carrier *
CVA Aircraft Carrier, Attack
CVAN Aircraft Carrier, Attack, Nuclear Powered
CVB Aircraft Carrier, Large
CVE Aircraft Carrier, Escort
CVGH Aircraft Carrier, Guided Missile Helicopter
CVH Aircraft Carrier, Helicopter
CVHE Aircraft Carrier, Escort, Helicopter
CVL Aircraft Carrier, Light
CVN Aircraft Carrier, Nuclear Powered
CVS Prior to 1957: Seaplane Carrier
CVS After 1957: Anti-Submarine/Support Carrier
CVV Aircraft Carrier, Vertical Take Off And Landing

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Battleships
B Battleship (prior to 1920)
BB Battleship (after 1920)
BBC Battleship, Command Ship
BBG Battleship, Missile
BBH Battleship, Helicopter
M Monitor (prior to 1920)
BM Monitor (after 1920)

Cruisers
ACR Armored Cruiser (prior to 1921)
C Cruiser (prior to 1920)
CA Cruiser, First Line (1920 to 1921)
CA Armored Cruiser (1921 to 1931)
CA Heavy Cruiser – Cruiser armed with guns 8″ (20.3 cm) or larger (after 1931)
CAG Guided Missile Heavy Cruiser – Heavy cruiser converted to carry missiles
CB Large Cruiser
CBC Large Command Ship
CC Battlecruiser (prior to 1961)
CC Command Cruiser or Command Ship (after 1961)
CF Flight-deck Cruiser
CG Guided Missile Cruiser
CGH Guided Missile Cruiser with an assigned Helicopter
CGN Guided Missile Cruiser, Nuclear Powered
CH Cruiser with an assigned Helicopter
CL Light Cruiser
CLAA Anti-Aircraft Light Cruiser
CLC Command Light Cruiser
CLD Light Cruiser, Dual-Purpose (AA and ASu)
CLG Guided Missile Light Cruiser – Light cruiser converted to carry missiles
CLGN Guided Missile Light Cruiser, Nuclear Powered
CLH Helicopter Light Cruiser – Cruiser with an assigned Helicopter
CLK Light Cruiser, ASW (submarine Killer)
CLV Aviation Cruiser
CS Scout Cruiser
CSG Strike Missile Cruiser
CSGN Strike Missile Cruiser, Nuclear Powered

Destroyers, Escorts and Frigates
BDE Destroyer Escorts to be transferred to Britain during World War II
D Destroyer (prior to 1921)
DD Destroyer (after 1921)
DE Destroyer Escort, Escort or “Ocean Escort”
DEG Destroyer Escort, Guided Missile
DER Destroyer Escort, Radar Picket
DDE Destroyer converted to Fleet Escort
DDG Guided Missile Destroyer
DDH Destroyer with an assigned Helicopter
DDK Destroyer, ASW (Submarine Killer)
DDR Destroyer, Radar Picket
DL Destroyer Leader (1920 to 1955)
DL Frigate (after 1955)
DLG Frigate, Guided Missile
DLGN Frigate, Guided Missile, Nuclear Powered
EDD Destroyer, Experimental Test Ship (before 2005)
EDD Destroyer, Self-Defense Test Ship (after 2005)
EDDE Experimental Escort Destroyer
FF Frigate
FFG Guided Missile Frigate
FFH Frigate with an assigned Helicopter
FFT Reserve/Training Frigate
PE Patrol Escort
PF Frigate or Patrol Frigate
PFG Patrol Frigate, Guided Missile
PFR Radar Picket Frigate
TB Torpedo Boat

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Submarines
AGSS Auxilary/Experimental Submarine
APS Auxiliary Cargo Submarine
NSSN New Nuclear Powered Attack Submarine (temporary designation)
S Submarine (Attack/Fleet) – prior to 1920
SS Submarine (Attack/Fleet) – after 1920
SC Cruiser Submarine
SF Fleet Submarine
SM Submarine, Minelayer
SSA Auxilary/Experimental Submarine
SSAG Auxilary/Experimental Submarine
SSB Submarine, Ballistic Missile
SSBN Submarine, Ballistic Missile, Nuclear Powered
SSG Attack Submarine, Guided Missile
SSGN Attack Submarine, Guided Missile, Nuclear Powered
SSK Hunter-Killer Submarine
SSM Midget Submarine
SSN Attack Submarine, Nuclear Powered
SSP Transport Submarine
SSR Radar Picket Submarine
SSRN Radar Picket Submarine, Nuclear Powered
SST Submarine, Target/Training

Amphibious Forces
AGC Amphibious Fleet Flagship
LC(FF) Landing Craft, Flotilla Flagship
LCAC Air Cushion Landing Craft
LCC Amphibious Command Ship
LCI Infantry Landing Craft
LCI(G) Infantry Landing Craft, Gun
LCI(L) Infantry Landing Craft, Large
LCI(R) Infantry Landing Craft, Rocket
LCM Mechanized Landing Craft
LCM/ML Minelaying Mechanized Landing Craft
LCP Personnel Landing Craft
LCP(L) Personnel Landing Craft, Large
LCP(N) Personnel Landing Craft, Nested
LCP(R) Personnel Landing Craft, Ramp
LCR Landing Craft, Rubber or Riverine
LCS Support Landing Craft (prior to 2004)
LCS(L) Support Landing Craft, Large (Rocket)
LCT Tank Landing Craft
LCU Utility Landing Craft
LCV Vehicle Landing Craft
LCVP Vehicle and Personnel Landing Craft
LCW Wing-in-Ground-Effect Landing Craft
LFR Inshore Fire Support Ship
LHA Amphibious Assault Ship, General Purpose
LHD Amphibious Assault Ship, Multi-purpose
LKA Amphibious Cargo Ship
LPD Amphibious Transport Dock Ship
LPH Amphibious Assault Helicopter Carrier
LPR Amphibious Transport, Small
LSD Dock Landing Ship
LSM Medium Landing Ship
LSM(R) Medium Landing Ship, Rocket
LSS Landing Support Ship
LSSL Small Landing Support Ship
LST Tank Landing Ship
LST(H) Tank Landing Ship, Evacuation (Hospital)
LST/ML Minelaying Tank Landing Ship
LSU Utility Landing Ship
LSV Vehicle Landing

Kesimpulan
berdasarkan bobot tonase maka kita mengurutkan dari kapal terkecil hingga terbesar.
LCS (3000 MT)–>Fregat (4000MT)–> Destroyer(8000-9000 MT)–>Cruiser (>9000 MT)

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